Toshiko Takenaka

  • Professor of Law

Contact

Email: toshiko@uw.edu

Education

LL.B. 1981, Seikei University LL.M.1990, Ph.D. 1992, University of Washington

Curriculum Vitae

Areas of Expertise

Asian Law — Comparative Law — Patent Law — Trademark Law

Recent Courses

LAW P 545 Advanced Patent Law
LAW P 546 Advanced Trademark Law
LAW P 590 Graduate Intellectual Property Law Tutorial

Selected Publications

See the full list under the Publications tab below.

Professor Takenaka, a Washington Research Foundation Simpson Professor of Law, joined the UW law school faculty in 1993 and teaches Patent Law, Advanced Patent Law, Intellectual Property and Intellectual Property Innovations in Science and Technology. She is the Director of Center for Advanced Study and Research on Intellectual Property (CASRIP).

After receiving a Bachelor of Law degree from Seikei University, Tokyo, Professor Takenaka pursued a successful career in patent prosecution and management with Texas Instruments Japan Ltd., where she served as a patent prosecution specialist. In 1986, she passed the Japanese Patent Attorney (Benrishi) Bar and worked as an associate for the Yamasaki Law and Patent Office.

Professor Takenaka received her LL.M. in 1990 and her Ph.D. in Comparative Law in 1992 from the UW School of Law. She was a visiting scholar with the Max Planck Institute for Domestic and International Intellectual Property in Munich, Germany, and a visiting professor at Waseda University in Tokyo, Japan. She has extensively published in the field of comparative patent law and is a frequent speaker for academic and professional seminars focusing on patent law. She is on the board of editors for Journal of Intellectual Property Law and Practice.

Peer Reviewed Journals & Law Reviews

  • Toshiko Takenaka, The Patent and Non-Patent Incentives for Research and Development on New Uses of Known Pharmaceuticals in Japan, 12 Wash. J. L. Tech. & Arts 219-43 (2017).
  • Toshiko Takenaka, Serious Flaw of Employee Invention Ownership under the Bayh-Dole Act in Stanford v. Roche: Finding the Missing Piece of the Puzzle in the German Employee Invention Act, 20 Tex. Intell. Prop. L.J. 281-326 (2012).
  • Toshiko Takenaka, Chief Judge Rader’s Contributions to Comparative Patent Law, 7 Wash. J.L. Tech. & Arts 379-404 (2012).
  • Toshiko Takenaka, Has the United States Adopted a First-to-File System Through America Invents Act?: A Comparative Law Analysis of Patent Priority under First-Inventor-to-File, 2012 Gewerblicher Rechtsschutz und Urheberrecht Internationaler Teil [GBUR Int] 304-12
  • Toshiko Takenaka, Beikoku wa hont? ni Amerika Hatsumeih? de sengan shugi ni ik?shita no ka : Sen hatsumeisha shutsugan seido (First-Inventor-to-File System) no hikakuh?teki bunseki [Is the United States Really Moving Toward a First to File System under American Invention Law?: A Comparative Law Analysis of the First to File System], 54 Law & Tech. 29-43 (2012).
  • Toshiko Takenaka, Harmony with the Rest of the World? The America Invents Act, 7 J. Intell. Prop. L. & Prac. 4-7 (2012).
  • Jan B. Krauss & Toshiko Takenaka, A Special Rule for Compound Protection for DNA-Sequences—Impact of the ECJ "Monsanto" Decision on Patent Practice, 93 J. Pat. & Trademark Off. Soc’y 189-206 (2011).
  • Kokusai chiteki zaisan shinpojiumu: ?sh? shuy? shokoku ni okeru chitekizaisan enf?sumento: sono genj? to sh?raiteki tenb? [International Intellectual Property Symposium: EU IP Enforcement: Present and Future], Kigy? to h? s?z? [Q. Rev. Corp. L.], March 2010, at 5-55, translated in Kigy? to h? s?z? [Q. Rev. Corp. L.], March 2010, at 227-81 (Toshiko Takenaka participant).
  • Toshiko Takenaka, Should “Essential Elements of Invention” be a Standard in Determining Infringement, Inventorship and Patentability?: From the Perspective of U.S. Patent Law, 32 Ann. Indus. Prop. L. 143 (May 2009)
  • Toshiko Takenaka, Japan’s National IP Strategy and IP Enforcement Revisions: Improvements in Evidence Taking and Damages, 5 Q. Rev. Corp. L. & Soc. 275-93 (2009).
  • Toshiko Takenaka, Success or Failure?: Japan’s National Strategy on Intellectual Property and Evaluation of Its Impact from the Comparative Law Perspective, 8 Wash. U. Global Stud. L. Rev. 379-98 (2009).
  • Toshiko Takenaka, Nonobviousness Standard under Fire: Flexible Applicaiton of TSM Test My Result in Validity Challenges Against Many US Patents, J of IP Law and Practice (2007).
  • Toshiko Takenaka, Claim Construction and the Extent of Patent Protection: A Comparative Analysis of the Phillips En Banc Federal Circuit Decision, 1 J. Intell. Prop. L. & Prac. 119-130 (2006).
  • Toshiko Takenaka, 2005 I.P. Ann. Rep. Bessatsu N.B.L. 171 (Toshiko Takenaka co-ed. 2005).
  • Toshiko Takenaka, Recent Intellectual Property Legislative and Case Law Developments in the United States and Europe, 2005 I.P. Ann. Rep. Bessatsu N.B.L. 171 (2005).
  • Toshiko Takenaka, The Basis for Patent Infringement Damages in U.S. Case Law and Interpretation of Section 102 in the 1999 Amendment Japan Patent Law: A Comparative Law Perspective, 49 AIPPI 2 (2004).
  • Toshiko Takenaka, The Best Patent Practice or Mere Compromise? A Review of the Current Draft of the Substantive Patent law Treaty and a Proposal for a “First-to-Invent” Exception for Domestic Applicants, 11 Texas Intellectual Property Law Journal 259-350 (2003).
  • Toshiko Takenaka, Intellectual Property Education at U.S. Universities and Proposal for Japan, 53 Chizai Kanri 719 (2003) (Japanese).
  • Toshiko Takenaka, Patent Harmonization and Role of Japan Patent Office, 228 Tokugikon 53 (2003) (Japanese).
  • Toshiko Takenaka, Review of Current Draft Substantive Patent Law Treaty: The United States Patent Law Perspective, 47 AIPPI 2 (2002) (Japanese).
  • Toshiko Takenaka, Rethinking the United States First-to-Invent Principle from a Comparative Law Perspective: A Proposal to Restructure § 102 Novelty and Priority Provisions, 39 Hous. L. Rev. 621-65 (2002).
  • Toshiko Takenaka, What Japan should learn from US Experiences: Tests of Equivalence, Means-Plus-Function Claims and Product-By-Process Claims, 9 CASRIP Newsl. 7 (Winter 2002).
  • Toshiko Takenaka, Festo Federal Circuit En Banc Decision and Its Impact on Future Case Development on the Doctrine of Equivalents: A Drastic Change in U.S. Pro-Patent Policy? 45 Chizaiken Forum 48 (2001) (Japanese).
  • Toshiko Takenaka, Comments on Academic Presentation in International and Comparative Law Perspective, 7 Mich. Tel. Comm. Tech. L. Rev. 423 (2001).
  • Rader, A Brief History of Functional Claiming in the United States, in Publication Celebrating the Tenth Anniversary of Institute of Intellectual Property, Future of Intellectual Property in the Twenty First Century, 459 (Toshiko Takenaka trans. 2000).
  • Toshiko Takenaka, Patent Infringement Damages in Japan and the United States: Will Increased Patent Infringement Damage Awards Revive the Japanese Economy?, 2 Wash. U. J.L. & Pol’y 309-70 (2000).
  • Toshiko Takenaka, Semiconductor Technology and Patents in View of Federal Circuit Decisions, 52 Patent 43 (1999) (Japanese).
  • Donald S. Chisum, The Scope of Protection for Patents after the Supreme Court's Warner-Jenkinson Decision: Balancing Fairness and Certainty, Recent Legal Issues in Intellectual Property 135 (Festschrift for Prof. Monya's 60th Birthday) (Toshiko Takenaka trans. 1998).
  • Toshiko Takenaka, "First-to-File" Principle under the U.S. Patent System, 1998 Patent Studies (No. 26), 11 (Japanese).
  • Toshiko Takenaka, Harmonizing the Japanese patent System with its U.S. Counterpart Through Judge-Made Law: Interaction between Japanese and U.S. Case Law Developments, Intellectual Property: Japan and Asia, 7 Pac Rim L. & Pol'y J. 249 (1998).
  • Heath, Utility Models in East and West, Recent Legal Issues in Intellectual Property 205 (Festschrift for Prof. Monya's 60th Birthday) (Toshiko Takenaka trans. 1997).
  • Toshiko Takenaka, The Recent Development of American Patent Claim Interpretation III, 30 Chizaiken Forum 12 (1997) (Japanese).
  • Toshiko Takenaka, Doctrine of Equivalents After Hilton Davis: A Comparative Law Analysis, 22 Rutgers Comp. & Tech. J. 479 (1996).
  • Toshiko Takenaka, Does a Cultural Barrier to Intellectual Property Trade Exist? The Japanese Example, 29 N.Y.U. J. Int'l L. & Pol. 153-76 (1996).
  • Toshiko Takenaka, The Recent Development of American Patent Claim Interpretation II, 23 Chizaiken Forum 2 (1995) (Japanese).
  • Toshiko Takenaka, Ball Spline Bearing, 26 IIC 683 (1995).
  • Toshiko Takenaka, The Role of The Japanese Patent System in Japanese Industry, 13 UCLA Pac Basin L. J. 25 (1995).
  • Toshiko Takenaka, The Recent Development of American Patent Claim Interpretation I, 17 Chizaiken Forum 2 (1994) (Japanese).
  • Toshiko Takenaka, A Proposal for Japanese Doctrine of Equivalents Through a Comparative Study of Equivalency Test Used in the United States and Germany, 38 AIPPI 538 (1993) (Japanese).
  • Toshiko Takenaka, AIPPI Case Reporter, Patent Claim Interpretation, 18 AIPPI, Int'l Ed., 154 (1993).
  • Toshiko Takenaka, Extending the New Patent Misuse Limitation to Copyright: Lasercomb America, Inc. v. Reynolds, 5 Software L. J. 739 (1992).
  • Toshiko Takenaka, The Substantial Identity Rule under the Japanese Novelty Standard, 9 UCLA Pac..Basin L. J. 220 (1991).
  • Toshiko Takenaka, Custom-made ICs and Constructive Infringement, 42 Patent, (No. 11) 33 (1989) (Japanese).

Books or Treatises

Book Chapters

  • Toshiko Takenaka, Life Science Research and Patents in Japan: A Comparative Study of Life Science Invention Patentability Between the Japanese and U.S. Patent Acts, in Research Handbook on Intellectual Property and the Life Sciences 380 (Duncan Matthews & Herbert Zech eds., Edgar Elgar 2017).
  • Toshiko Takenaka, Japan’s Pharmaceutical Industry and the Patent and Non-Patent Incentives for Pharmaceutical R&D, in Competition and Patent Law in the Pharmaceutical Sector: An International Perspective 431-47 (Giovanni Pitruzzella & Gabriella Muscolo eds., Wolters Kluwer 2016).
  • Toshiko Takenaka & Linda Falcon, Human Rights and Intellectual Property in the United States: The Role of United States Courts in Striking a Fine Balance Between Competing Policies, in Research Handbook on Human Rights and Intellectual Property 253-72 (Christophe Geiger ed., Edward Elgar 2015).
  • Toshiko Takenaka, A Change of Leadership in Patent Policy and Law Development? The Active Role Played by Japanese Courts in Japan’s Patent Term Extension Reform, in Legal Innovations in Asia: Judicial Law Making and Influence of Comparative Law 293-311 (John O. Haley & Toshiko Takenaka eds., Edward Elgar Publishing 2014).
  • Toshiko Takenaka & Yves Reboul, Shokumu hatsumei seido no hikakuh?teki k?satsu [Comparative Law Considerations Concerning the Employee Inventions System], in Chiteki zaisanh? no kokusaiteki k?saku [The International Blend of Intellectual Property Law] 331-69 (Nihon Hy?ronsha 2012).
  • Toshiko Takenaka & Yves Reboul, Employee Invention System: Comparative Law Perspective, in Intellectual Property in Common Law and Civil Law 365-400 (Toshiko Takenaka ed., Edward Elgar 2013).
  • Toshiko Takenaka with Martin J. Adelman, First-Inventor-to-File under the America Invents Act: A View of First-to-File Lawyer and a View of First-to-Invent Lawyer, in Intellectual Property in Common Law and Civil Law 50-74 (Toshiko Takenaka ed., Edward Elgar 2013).
  • Jan Krauss & Toshiko Takenaka, Construction of Efficient and Balanced Patent System: Patentability and Patent Scope of Isolated DNA Sequences under U.S. Patent Act and EU Biotech Directive, in Constructing European Intellectual Property: Achievements and New Perspectives 365 (Christophe Geiger ed., Edward Elgar 2013).
  • Toshiko Takenaka, Exercise of Patent Rights Under Japanese Anti-Monopoly Prevention Law: A Comparative Law Perspective, in Competition Law and Intellectual Property. The European Perspective 285-91(Gabriella Muscolo, Giandonato Caggiano & Marina Tavassi eds., Wolters Kluwer 2012).
  • Toshiko Takenaka et al., [Zadankai] Chiteki zaisanh? no konnichiteki ronten o megutte [Concerning Current Theoretical Issues of Intellectual Property], in Nenp? chiteki zaisanh?, 2011. Denshi shuppan o meguru chosakukenh? j? no kadai [Intellectual Property Law Annual, 2011. Copyright Law and Electronic Publishing] 1-22 (Ryu Takabayashi, Ryoichi Mimura & Toshiko Takenaka eds., Nihon Hy?ronsha 2011).
  • Toshiko Takenaka, Beikoku ni okeru chizai no ugoki [Intellectual Property Developments in the United States], in Nenp? chiteki zaisanh?, 2011. Denshi shuppan o meguru chosakukenh? j? no kadai [Intellectual Property Law Annual, 2011. Copyright Law and Electronic Publishing] 128-45 (Ryu Takabayashi, Ryoichi Mimura & Toshiko Takenaka eds., Nihon Hy?ronsha 2011).
  • Toshiko Takenaka, Merging Civil and Common Law Traditions in Patent Validity Challenge System: Japanese Experiences, in Nourriture de l’esprit: Festchrift für Dieter Strauder zum 70. Geburtstag 271-92 (Horst-Peter Götting & Claudia Schlüter eds. Nomos 2011).
  • Toshiko Takenaka, Amerika-h? ni okeru chiteki zaisanken shingai ni taisuru songai baish? [Compensation for Damages for Infringement of Intellectual Property Rights in American Law], in Chiteki zaisanken shingai to songai baish? [Compensation for Damages and the Infringement of Intellectual Property Rights] 179-213 (Seibund? 2011).
  • Toshiko Takenaka, Chosakukenh? oyobi sono ta no chiteki zaisanh? ni okeru purodakuto dezain no hogo [Product Design Protection under Copyright Law and Other Intellectual Property Laws], in Chosakuken shingai o meguru kikkin no kent? kadai [An Urgent Agenda Regarding Copyright Infringement] 111-50 (Seibund? 2011).
  • Toshiko Takenaka, Tokkyo y?k?sei funs? shori seido saik?: Nichi-Bei hikakuh? no kanten kara [Re-thinking the Management of Disputes about Patent Validity: Viewed from a Japan/U.S. Comparative Law Perspective], in Chiteki zaisanh? no atarashii nagare : Katayama Eiji sensei kanreki kinen ronbunshu [New Trends in Intellectual Property Law: Celebratory Volume in Honor of Prof. Eiji Katayama] 371-94 (Seirin Shoin 2010).
  • Toshiko Takenaka & Mon'ya Nobuo, Sofutouea hogo hosei no Nichi-Bei hikaku [Comparing the Legal Systems for Software Protection in Japan and the United States], in Chosakuken bijinesu no riron to jissen : Waseda Daigaku R? Suk?ru chosakukenh? tokushu k?gi [Theory and Practice of Copyright Business] 255-94 (Seibund? 2010).
  • Toshiko Takenaka, Beikoku ni okeru chizai no ugoki [Recent Developments in American Intellectual Property], in Chizai nenp? [I.P. Annual Report 2010] 111-34 (Bessastu NBL no. 136) (Shibuya Tatsuki, Toshiko Takenaka & Takabayashi Ry? eds., Sh?ji H?mu 2010).
  • Toshiko Takenaka, Harmonizing Patent Infringement Damages: A Lesson from Japanese Experiences,Wolrad, in Patents and Technological Progress in a Global World 463-80 (Wolrad Prinz zu Waldeck und Pyrmont et al. eds., 2009)
  • Toshiko Takenaka, Significance of KSR v. Teleflex in Historical Development of Nonobviousness Standard Under US Patent Law, 58 Chizai Kanri 5-20 (2008).
  • Toshiko Takenaka, Tokkyoken shingai ni yoru songai no tekiseina tenpo [Appropriate Compensation for Damages from Violation of Patent Rights], in Chiteki zaisan h?sei no saik?chiku [Reconstructing the Intellectual Property Legal System] 64-91 (Takabayashi Ryu ed., Nihon Hy?ronsha 2008). (Waseda COE Book Series on Changes in Scoeity and Creation of Legal Systems 64)
  • Toshiko Takenaka, "Comparative Analysis of Federal Circuit Phillips en banc Decision: Claim Construction and the Extent of Patent Protection in United States, United Kingdom, Japan and Republic of Korea," in Korean Industrial Property Office 30th Anniversary Publication, 463 (2007).
  • Toshiko Takenaka, Seven chapters including "First-To-Invent System from the Comparative Law Perspective," in Legal Consulation of International Intellectual Property Dispute Resolution (2006).
  • Toshiko Takenaka, "Comparative Study of Legal Issues in Repair of Patented Products: The Scope of Exhaustion Doctrine under Japanese and US Patent Laws," in Recent Developments of the Academic Disputes on the Intellectual Property Laws and the Competition Law: Festschrift for Prof. Nobuo Monya, 379 (2006).
  • Toshiko Takenaka, "Recent Intellectual Property Legislative and Case Law Developments in the United States and Europe", in 2006 I.P. Annual Report, Bessatsu NBL No. 106, 135 (2006).
  • Toshiko Takenaka, "A Person of Ordinary Skill in the Art and the Extent of Patent Protection," in Festschrift for Jochen Pagenberg," 81 (2006).
  • Toshiko Takenaka, Scope of Claims Including Numerical Limitations: Comparative Study of Claim Interpretation, the Doctrine of Equivalents and Prosecution History Estoppel, Jap. Patent Att’ys Assn. ed., Claim Construction (2005).
  • Toshiko Takenaka, Comparative Study of Grace Period under First-To-File System and First-To-Invent System and Review of Provision For Exception To Lack of Novelty Under Japanese Patent Law Article 30, Festschrift for celebrating Prof. Nobuhiro Nakayama's sixtiethbirthday (2005).
  • Toshiko Takenaka, "Clinical Education at Japanese Law Schools: Suggestions from U.S. Experiences," in Law School and Legal Clinics (Miyazawa ed. 2003).
  • Toshiko Takenaka, Tokkyo shingai jiken ni okeru muk? shuch? no toriatsukai [Handling Claims of Patent Invalidity in Patent Infringement Proceedings (in the United States)], in Tokkyo no y?k?sei to shingai sosh? [Patent Validity and Patent Infringement Litigation] 251 (Naoki Koizumi & Chiteki Zaisan Kenky?jo [Institute of Intellectual Property] eds, 2001).
  • Toshiko Takenaka, Calculation of Patent Infringement Damages: Comparative Study (in Japanese) in Recent Legal Issues in Intellectual Propert, Festschrift for Prof. Monya's 60th Birthday 103 (1998) (Japanese).
  • Toshiko Takenaka, Patent Claim Interpretation and Prior Art, in Issues Concerning Intellectual Property Rights, 665 (Festschrift for Judge Takura's 70th Birthday 1996) (Japanese).
  • Toshiko Takenaka, Dependent Invention and Protection Scope of Patents (in Japanese and German)in Theories of Intellectual Property and Competition Law, 123 (Festschrift for Prof. Beier's 70th Birthday, 1996) (Japanese).

Book Reviews

  • Toshiko Takenaka, Patent Practice in Japan and Europe: Liber Amicorum for Guntram Rahn, 34 Eur. Intell. Prop. Rev. 135-36 (2012) (book review).

Professional Publications

  • Toshiko Takenaka, Federal Circuit Judges Split Their Views on Obvious-To-Try in Nonobviousness of Chemical Compound, CASRIP Newsletter, Vol. 14, Issue 3 (Summer 2007).
  • Toshiko Takenaka, High Hurdle for US Courts to Hear Foreign Infringement Claims, CASRIP Newsletter, Vol. 14, Issue 2 (Summer 2007).
  • Toshiko Takenaka, Supreme Court Disagrees with Federal Circuit in Two Controversial Patent Cases: KSR Inc. v. Teleflex and Microsoft Corp. v. AT&T Corp., CASRIP Newsletter Vol. 14, Issue 2 (Summer 2007).
  • Toshiko Takenaka, IP Boom or IP Bashing?: Current Trends in IP Legislation and Case Law, Japan Spotlight 21 (November/December 2006).
  • Toshiko Takenaka, Protection Scope for Claims Including Numerical Limitations: Range of Equivalents and Prosecution History Estoppel, 11 CASRIP Newsletter 12 (2004).
  • Toshiko Takenaka, Comments on Patent Harmonization, Submitted to USPTO in response to issues posted in 66 Federal Register, 8 CASRIP Newsl.7 (Spring/Summer 2001).
  • Toshiko Takenaka, The Doctrine of Equivalents in Japan, 6 CASRIP Symp. Pub’n 125 (2001).
  • Toshiko Takenaka, Comparison of U.S. and Japanese Court Systems for Patent Litigation: A Special Court or Special Divisions in a General Court?, Streamlining International Intellectual Property, 5 CASRIP Symp. Pub’n 47 (2000).
  • Toshiko Takenaka, Patent Infringement Damages in Japan and the United States: The Japanese Patent Office’s Challenge, Working Paper Published by Institute of Intellectual Property (March, 1999).
  • Toshiko Takenaka, An Additional Test for the Doctrine of Equivalents? A Comparative Perspective on International Visual Corp. v. Crown Metal Manufacturing, International Perspectives on the Legal Interpretation of Patent Claims, CASRIP Publication Series No. 1 (1995).
  • Speaker, "The Fourth Generation Industrial Revolution and Patent Law: Rethinking Key Concepts", International Conference on New Paradigm of Laws, University of Osaka (December 6, 2017)

  • Speaker, "The Fourth Generation Industrial Revolution and Patent Law: Rethinking Key Concepts", International Conference on New Paradigm of Laws, National Chengchi University College of Law (December 4, 2017)

  • Speaker, "Schutzbereichsbestimmung im amerikanischen und deutschen Patentrecht [Extent of Patent Protection under US and German Patent Acts]", Heinrich Heine University of Dusseldorf (October 27, 2017)

  • Speaker, "Overview of German Patent Enforcement: Comparative Perspective", 2017 Dusseldorf IP Day Seminar, (October 25, 2017)

  • Moderator, Global Business and Education, Keio-JPAA Joint Conference (September 29, 2017)

  • Speaker, "Patent Protection for AI and Life Science/Biotech", (September 28, 2017)

  • Speaker, "Challenging Validity at USPTO", Keio University (September 25, 2017)

  • Speaker, "US Discovery--Comparative Perspective", IP Forum: Evidence Taking Procedure in Patent Cases, Japan Patent Attorneys Association (July 28, 2017)

  • Speaker, "US Discovery--Comparative Perspective", IP Forum: Evidence Taking Procedure in Patent Cases, Japan Patent Attorneys Association (July 14, 2017)

  • Speaker & Moderator, "Recent US Case Law Development", Global IP Seminar, International Association for the Protection of Intellectual Property (July 7, 2017)

  • Speaker, "Geheimnisschutz und Geheimhaltungsvereinbarungen vor US-amerikanischen und japanischen Gerichten [Trade Secret Protection and Confidentiality Procedure at US and Japanese Courts]", Patentrechtstage Conference, Heinrich Heine University of Dusseldorf (March 23, 2017)

  • Speaker, "The Best Practice for Patent Judiciary", Jean Moulin University of Lyon III (March 16, 2017)

  • Speaker, "Intellectual Property Disputes in Life Science", Tokyo Medical Dental University (January 21, 2017)

  • Speaker, "US FTC’s Patent Assertion Entities Report and Proposed Patent Reform: Impact on Innovations", Faculty Seminar, Technical University of Munich (December 14, 2016)

  • Speaker, "Does Patent Quality Matter? US Patent Community's Obsession with Patent Claim Wording", Technical University of Munich, School of Management (December 12, 2016)