Toshiko Takenaka

  • Washington Research Foundation/W. Hunter Simpson Professor of Technology Law


Phone: 685-5204


LL.B. 1981, Seikei University LL.M.1990, Ph.D. 1992, University of Washington

Curriculum Vitae

Areas of Expertise

Asian Law — Comparative Law — Patent Law — Trademark Law

Recent Courses

LAW P 545 Advanced Patent Law
LAW P 546 Advanced Trademark Law
LAW P 590 Graduate Intellectual Property Law Tutorial

Selected Publications

See the full list under the Publications tab below.

Professor Takenaka, a Washington Research Foundation Simpson Professor of Law, joined the UW law school faculty in 1993 and teaches Patent Law, Advanced Patent Law, Intellectual Property and Intellectual Property Innovations in Science and Technology. She is the Director of Center for Advanced Study and Research on Intellectual Property (CASRIP).

After receiving a Bachelor of Law degree from Seikei University, Tokyo, Professor Takenaka pursued a successful career in patent prosecution and management with Texas Instruments Japan Ltd., where she served as a patent prosecution specialist. In 1986, she passed the Japanese Patent Attorney (Benrishi) Bar and worked as an associate for the Yamasaki Law and Patent Office.

Professor Takenaka received her LL.M. in 1990 and her Ph.D. in Comparative Law in 1992 from the UW School of Law. She was a visiting scholar with the Max Planck Institute for Domestic and International Intellectual Property in Munich, Germany, and a visiting professor at Waseda University in Tokyo, Japan. She has extensively published in the field of comparative patent law and is a frequent speaker for academic and professional seminars focusing on patent law. She is on the board of editors for Journal of Intellectual Property Law and Practice.

Professor Takenaka serves on the Vision Committee of Intellectual Property Headquarters in Japan’s Cabinet and Intellectual Property Committee under the Industrial Structure Council in Japan’s Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry, advising the Japanese government on the development of IP policies.

Peer Reviewed Journals & Law Reviews

Books or Treatises

Book Chapters

  • Toshiko Takenaka, Indasutor? 4.0 to Tokkyo Seido: Tokkyoken Saik? (Industry 4.0 and Patent System: Reevaluating Patent Rights) (Eiji Katayama, Koki Ronbunshu, eds., forthcoming, 2020).
  • Toshiko Takenaka, Festschrift for Prof. Dr. Peter Meier-Beck, The Doctrine of Equivalents and the Third Prong of the German Test: A Comparative Law Perspective (Klaus Bacher et al, eds., forthcoming 2020).
  • Toshiko Takenaka, Trademark Protection for Fashion Design in Japan: Comparative Law Perspective, in Trademarks and Fashion: A First Survey in Different Parts of the World 165-180 (Cristiana Sappa ed., forthcoming 2020).
  • Toshiko Takenaka, Case Note, Interpretation of Patent Claims – Doctrine of Equivalents, in Japanese Patent Law: Cases and Comments 401-412 (Christopher Heath & Atsushi Furuta eds., 2019).
  • Toshiko Takenaka, Does Japan Have a 3D Mark Registration System? Comparative Law Perspective, in 49 Patents & Licensing 9-18 (2019).
  • Toshiko Takenaka & Christof Karl, Claim Construction under US and German Patent Acts: Wording Used in the Claims and the Invention Disclosed in the Specification, in Research Handbook on Patent Law and Theory 202-38 (2d ed. Toshiko Takanaka ed., Edward Elgar Pub. 2019).
  • Toshiko Takenaka, The Best Practice for Patent Judiciary: Lessons from Another Experiment on Specialized Adjudication for Patent Cases in Japan, in Intellectual Property and the Judiciary 386-426 (Christophe Geiger, Craig Allan Nard & Xavier Seuba eds., Edward Elgar Publishing 2018).
  • Toshiko Takenaka, Life Science Research and Patents in Japan: A Comparative Study of Life Science Invention Patentability Between the Japanese and U.S. Patent Acts, in Research Handbook on Intellectual Property and the Life Sciences 380 (Duncan Matthews & Herbert Zech eds., Edgar Elgar 2017).
  • Toshiko Takenaka, Japan’s Pharmaceutical Industry and the Patent and Non-Patent Incentives for Pharmaceutical R&D, in Competition and Patent Law in the Pharmaceutical Sector: An International Perspective 431-47 (Giovanni Pitruzzella & Gabriella Muscolo eds., Wolters Kluwer 2016).
  • Toshiko Takenaka & Linda Falcon, Human Rights and Intellectual Property in the United States: The Role of United States Courts in Striking a Fine Balance Between Competing Policies, in Research Handbook on Human Rights and Intellectual Property 253-72 (Christophe Geiger ed., Edward Elgar 2015).
  • Toshiko Takenaka, A Change of Leadership in Patent Policy and Law Development? The Active Role Played by Japanese Courts in Japan’s Patent Term Extension Reform, in Legal Innovations in Asia: Judicial Law Making and Influence of Comparative Law 293-311 (John O. Haley & Toshiko Takenaka eds., Edward Elgar Publishing 2014).
  • Toshiko Takenaka & Yves Reboul, Shokumu hatsumei seido no hikakuh?teki k?satsu [Comparative Law Considerations Concerning the Employee Inventions System], in Chiteki zaisanh? no kokusaiteki k?saku [The International Blend of Intellectual Property Law] 331-69 (Nihon Hy?ronsha 2012).
  • Toshiko Takenaka & Yves Reboul, Employee Invention System: Comparative Law Perspective, in Intellectual Property in Common Law and Civil Law 365-400 (Toshiko Takenaka ed., Edward Elgar 2013).
  • Toshiko Takenaka with Martin J. Adelman, First-Inventor-to-File under the America Invents Act: A View of First-to-File Lawyer and a View of First-to-Invent Lawyer, in Intellectual Property in Common Law and Civil Law 50-74 (Toshiko Takenaka ed., Edward Elgar 2013).
  • Jan Krauss & Toshiko Takenaka, Construction of Efficient and Balanced Patent System: Patentability and Patent Scope of Isolated DNA Sequences under U.S. Patent Act and EU Biotech Directive, in Constructing European Intellectual Property: Achievements and New Perspectives 365 (Christophe Geiger ed., Edward Elgar 2013).
  • Toshiko Takenaka, Exercise of Patent Rights Under Japanese Anti-Monopoly Prevention Law: A Comparative Law Perspective, in Competition Law and Intellectual Property. The European Perspective 285-91(Gabriella Muscolo, Giandonato Caggiano & Marina Tavassi eds., Wolters Kluwer 2012).
  • Toshiko Takenaka et al., [Zadankai] Chiteki zaisanh? no konnichiteki ronten o megutte [Concerning Current Theoretical Issues of Intellectual Property], in Nenp? chiteki zaisanh?, 2011. Denshi shuppan o meguru chosakukenh? j? no kadai [Intellectual Property Law Annual, 2011. Copyright Law and Electronic Publishing] 1-22 (Ryu Takabayashi, Ryoichi Mimura & Toshiko Takenaka eds., Nihon Hy?ronsha 2011).
  • Toshiko Takenaka, Beikoku ni okeru chizai no ugoki [Intellectual Property Developments in the United States], in Nenp? chiteki zaisanh?, 2011. Denshi shuppan o meguru chosakukenh? j? no kadai [Intellectual Property Law Annual, 2011. Copyright Law and Electronic Publishing] 128-45 (Ryu Takabayashi, Ryoichi Mimura & Toshiko Takenaka eds., Nihon Hy?ronsha 2011).
  • Toshiko Takenaka, Merging Civil and Common Law Traditions in Patent Validity Challenge System: Japanese Experiences, in Nourriture de l’esprit: Festschrift für Dieter Strauder zum 70. Geburtstag 271-92 (Horst-Peter Götting & Claudia Schlüter eds. Nomos 2011).
  • Toshiko Takenaka, Amerika-h? ni okeru chiteki zaisanken shingai ni taisuru songai baish? [Compensation for Damages for Infringement of Intellectual Property Rights in American Law], in Chiteki zaisanken shingai to songai baish? [Compensation for Damages and the Infringement of Intellectual Property Rights] 179-213 (Seibund? 2011).
  • Toshiko Takenaka, Chosakukenh? oyobi sono ta no chiteki zaisanh? ni okeru purodakuto dezain no hogo [Product Design Protection under Copyright Law and Other Intellectual Property Laws], in Chosakuken shingai o meguru kikkin no kent? kadai [An Urgent Agenda Regarding Copyright Infringement] 111-50 (Seibund? 2011).
  • Toshiko Takenaka, Tokkyo y?k?sei funs? shori seido saik?: Nichi-Bei hikakuh? no kanten kara [Re-thinking the Management of Disputes about Patent Validity: Viewed from a Japan/U.S. Comparative Law Perspective], in Chiteki zaisanh? no atarashii nagare : Katayama Eiji sensei kanreki kinen ronbunshu [New Trends in Intellectual Property Law: Celebratory Volume in Honor of Prof. Eiji Katayama] 371-94 (Seirin Shoin 2010).
  • Toshiko Takenaka & Mon'ya Nobuo, Sofutouea hogo hosei no Nichi-Bei hikaku [Comparing the Legal Systems for Software Protection in Japan and the United States], in Chosakuken bijinesu no riron to jissen : Waseda Daigaku R? Suk?ru chosakukenh? tokushu k?gi [Theory and Practice of Copyright Business] 255-94 (Seibund? 2010).
  • Toshiko Takenaka, Beikoku ni okeru chizai no ugoki [Recent Developments in American Intellectual Property], in Chizai nenp? [I.P. Annual Report 2010] 111-34 (Bessastu NBL no. 136) (Shibuya Tatsuki, Toshiko Takenaka & Takabayashi Ry? eds., Sh?ji H?mu 2010).
  • Toshiko Takenaka, Harmonizing Patent Infringement Damages: A Lesson from Japanese Experiences,Wolrad, in Patents and Technological Progress in a Global World 463-80 (Wolrad Prinz zu Waldeck und Pyrmont et al. eds., 2009)
  • Toshiko Takenaka, Significance of KSR v. Teleflex in Historical Development of Nonobviousness Standard Under US Patent Law, 58 Chizai Kanri 5-20 (2008).
  • Toshiko Takenaka, Tokkyoken shingai ni yoru songai no tekiseina tenpo [Appropriate Compensation for Damages from Violation of Patent Rights], in Chiteki zaisan h?sei no saik?chiku [Reconstructing the Intellectual Property Legal System] 64-91 (Takabayashi Ryu ed., Nihon Hy?ronsha 2008). (Waseda COE Book Series on Changes in Society and Creation of Legal Systems 64)
  • Toshiko Takenaka, "Comparative Analysis of Federal Circuit Phillips en banc Decision: Claim Construction and the Extent of Patent Protection in United States, United Kingdom, Japan and Republic of Korea," in Korean Industrial Property Office 30th Anniversary Publication, 463 (2007).
  • Toshiko Takenaka, Seven chapters including "First-To-Invent System from the Comparative Law Perspective," in Legal Consulation of International Intellectual Property Dispute Resolution (2006).
  • Toshiko Takenaka, "Comparative Study of Legal Issues in Repair of Patented Products: The Scope of Exhaustion Doctrine under Japanese and US Patent Laws," in Recent Developments of the Academic Disputes on the Intellectual Property Laws and the Competition Law: Festschrift for Prof. Nobuo Monya, 379 (2006).
  • Toshiko Takenaka, "Recent Intellectual Property Legislative and Case Law Developments in the United States and Europe", in 2006 I.P. Annual Report, Bessatsu NBL No. 106, 135 (2006).
  • Toshiko Takenaka, "A Person of Ordinary Skill in the Art and the Extent of Patent Protection," in Festschrift for Jochen Pagenberg," 81 (2006).
  • Toshiko Takenaka, Scope of Claims Including Numerical Limitations: Comparative Study of Claim Interpretation, the Doctrine of Equivalents and Prosecution History Estoppel, Jap. Patent Att’ys Assn. ed., Claim Construction (2005).
  • Toshiko Takenaka, Comparative Study of Grace Period under First-To-File System and First-To-Invent System and Review of Provision For Exception To Lack of Novelty Under Japanese Patent Law Article 30, Festschrift for celebrating Prof. Nobuhiro Nakayama's sixtiethbirthday (2005).
  • Toshiko Takenaka, "Clinical Education at Japanese Law Schools: Suggestions from U.S. Experiences," in Law School and Legal Clinics (Miyazawa ed. 2003).
  • Toshiko Takenaka, Tokkyo shingai jiken ni okeru muk? shuch? no toriatsukai [Handling Claims of Patent Invalidity in Patent Infringement Proceedings (in the United States)], in Tokkyo no y?k?sei to shingai sosh? [Patent Validity and Patent Infringement Litigation] 251 (Naoki Koizumi & Chiteki Zaisan Kenky?jo [Institute of Intellectual Property] eds, 2001).
  • Toshiko Takenaka, Calculation of Patent Infringement Damages: Comparative Study (in Japanese) in Recent Legal Issues in Intellectual Propert, Festschrift for Prof. Monya's 60th Birthday 103 (1998) (Japanese).
  • Toshiko Takenaka, Patent Claim Interpretation and Prior Art, in Issues Concerning Intellectual Property Rights, 665 (Festschrift for Judge Takura's 70th Birthday 1996) (Japanese).
  • Toshiko Takenaka, Dependent Invention and Protection Scope of Patents (in Japanese and German)in Theories of Intellectual Property and Competition Law, 123 (Festschrift for Prof. Beier's 70th Birthday, 1996) (Japanese).

Book Reviews

Professional Publications

  • Toshiko Takenaka, Federal Circuit Judges Split Their Views on Obvious-To-Try in Nonobviousness of Chemical Compound, CASRIP Newsletter, Vol. 14, Issue 3 (Summer 2007).
  • Toshiko Takenaka, High Hurdle for US Courts to Hear Foreign Infringement Claims, CASRIP Newsletter, Vol. 14, Issue 2 (Summer 2007).
  • Toshiko Takenaka, Supreme Court Disagrees with Federal Circuit in Two Controversial Patent Cases: KSR Inc. v. Teleflex and Microsoft Corp. v. AT&T Corp., CASRIP Newsletter Vol. 14, Issue 2 (Summer 2007).
  • Toshiko Takenaka, IP Boom or IP Bashing?: Current Trends in IP Legislation and Case Law, Japan Spotlight 21 (November/December 2006).
  • Toshiko Takenaka, Protection Scope for Claims Including Numerical Limitations: Range of Equivalents and Prosecution History Estoppel, 11 CASRIP Newsletter 12 (2004).
  • Toshiko Takenaka, Comments on Patent Harmonization, Submitted to USPTO in response to issues posted in 66 Federal Register, 8 CASRIP Newsl.7 (Spring/Summer 2001).
  • Toshiko Takenaka, The Doctrine of Equivalents in Japan, 6 CASRIP Symp. Pub’n 125 (2001).
  • Toshiko Takenaka, Comparison of U.S. and Japanese Court Systems for Patent Litigation: A Special Court or Special Divisions in a General Court?, Streamlining International Intellectual Property, 5 CASRIP Symp. Pub’n 47 (2000).
  • Toshiko Takenaka, Patent Infringement Damages in Japan and the United States: The Japanese Patent Office’s Challenge, Working Paper Published by Institute of Intellectual Property (March, 1999).
  • Toshiko Takenaka, An Additional Test for the Doctrine of Equivalents? A Comparative Perspective on International Visual Corp. v. Crown Metal Manufacturing, International Perspectives on the Legal Interpretation of Patent Claims, CASRIP Publication Series No. 1 (1995).

  • Panelist, "AI Inventorship, Patent Ownership and Legislation", IAM Live: AI IP Europe, (November 3, 2022)
  • Speaker, "Grace Period in the Open Innovation Era", Law Faculty, University of Munich (October 27, 2022)
  • Moderator, "2022 Global Innovation Law Summit", CASRIP, University of Washington School of Law (July 22, 2022)
  • Speaker, "Curver Lux. v. Home Expressions (Fed. Cir. 2019)", Case Law Seminar, AIPPI Japan Group (June 30, 2022)
  • Panelist, "The Future of IP and the Court, some Observations and Thoughts", ASEAN Judicial Webnar Series, U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (March 31, 2022)
  • Moderator, "Reactivate Innovation in Japan: A View from U.S.", Special Seminar, Tokyo Medical Dental University (March 5, 2022)
  • Moderator, "AI and Inventorship, Developer and Practioner's Perspectives", Iprism, University of Osaka (February 26, 2022)
  • Speaker, "IP Litigation in the Information Age", IP Foundation Seminar, Judicial Training Center, The Supreme Court of Japan (January 24, 2022)
  • Moderator, "IP in Boardroom", Chizai Network Seminar, Silicon Valley NEDO (December 15, 2021)
  • Speaker, "Inventorship: US-Japan Comparative Study", Special Seminar, Tokyo Medical Dental University (December 11, 2021)
  • Speaker, "Intangible Assets & Investment for Innovation", Annual Conference, IP Association of Japan (November 27, 2021)
  • Speaker, "SDGs and IP System", IP Department, Osaka Institute of Technology (October 5, 2021)
  • Speaker, "Multiple IP Protection for Product Design: US-EU Comparative Study", Kanazawa University-Kanazawa Bar Association (July 6, 2021)
  • Speaker, "Digital Transformation and Patent Eligibility", Special Seminar for IP Judges, Japanese IP High Court (July 2, 2021)
  • Panelist, "Patenting AI Inventions", with Mika Ito, Special Seminar, AIPPI Japan Group (June 23, 2021)